Sometime around BC in the lower Ganges valley in eastern India a coin called a punchmarked Karshapana was created. It was made by taking a flat, though often irregularly shaped, piece of silver, cutting it to the proper weight, then applying a series of punches to the front of it.
See Article History Haryana, state in north-central India. It is bounded on the northwest by the state of Punjab and the union territory of Chandigarhon the north and northeast by the states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhandon the east by the state of Uttar Pradesh and the union territory of Delhiand on the south and southwest by the state of Rajasthan.
The city of Chandigarhwithin the Chandigarh union territory, serves as the capital of not only that territory but also of the states of Haryana and Punjab.
Haryana was constituted on November 1,as a result of the partition of the former state of Punjab into two separate states— Punjabi -speaking Punjab and Hindi -speaking Haryana.
Although the reorganization followed demands made by the Sikh community for a Punjabi suba Punjabi-speaking provinceit also substantially met the aspirations of people in the Hindi-speaking region of Punjab for a Vishal Haryana Greater Haryana.
Land Relief and drainage Haryana has two major physiographic regions: Remnants of the Aravalli Rangewhich stretches from southwestern Rajasthan to Delhiare evident in parts of southern Haryana.
Many seasonal streams flowing from the Siwalik Range pass through the area, however. Soils The soils of Haryana are generally deep and fertile.
There are some exceptions, however, including the eroded lands of the hilly northeast and the sandy areas of the southwest that fringe the Thar Great Indian Desert of Rajasthan. Most of the state experiences arid to semiarid conditions; only in the northeast are conditions relatively humid.
Precipitation averages about 18 inches mm annually, most falling between July and September.
Although the state has a system of canal irrigation and tube wells, there are chronic drought-prone areas, particularly in the southern and southwestern regions.
By contrast, the areas surrounding tributaries of the Yamuna and the Ghaggar are subject to occasional floods. Plant and animal life Little natural vegetation remains in Haryana. Eucalyptus trees are planted along the highways and in wastelands. Shisham Dalbergia sissoo trees grow along the roads and canals in the northern half of the state, while small, spiny kikar Acacia arabica trees and scrub are found in southern and southwestern Haryana.
Haryana is home to a variety of mammals. Larger species, including leopards, jackals, wild boars, and several types of deer, among others, are generally limited to the hilly regions of the northeast and the far south. Small mammals, such as bats, squirrels, mice, rats, and gerbils, are common in the plains.
Ducks and teals of various sorts are found near the rivers. Pigeons and doves are common in the agricultural areas, as are small, colourful birds such as parakeets, buntings, sunbirds, bulbuls, and kingfishers.
Several species of snakes are found in the state; among these are pythons, boas, and rat snakes, as well as poisonous kraits and vipers.
Other reptiles, including various lizards, frogs, and tortoises, also inhabit Haryana. Sikhs and Muslims each form a small but significant minority; there is also a tiny community of Christians.
With the exceptions of Rohtak, which is in central Haryana, and Hisar, which is in the northwest, most of the major urban centres lie in the eastern part of the state.
Economy Agriculture An agriculturally prosperous state, Haryana contributes a large amount of wheat and rice to the Central Pool a national repository system of surplus food grain. In addition, the state produces significant quantities of cotton, rape and mustard seed, pearl millet, chickpeas, sugarcane, sorghum, corn maizeand potatoes.
Dairy cattle, buffaloes, and bullocks, which are used for plowing the land and as draft animals, are prominent in the northeastern region. Farmers returning from their fields near Yamunanagar, northeast Haryana, India. As a result of this movement, large-scale investments have been made in irrigation, fertilizers, and high-quality seeds.
Manufacturing Haryana has made rapid strides in the development of agriculture-based manufacturing. Among the most important of such industries are cotton and sugar processing and the production of farm machinery.
Haryana also manufactures chemicals as well as a great variety of consumer goods, most notably bicycles.लाला लाजपत राय भारत में ब्रिटिश शासन के खिलाफ लड़ने वाले मुख्य. बाल-लाल-पाल त्रयी के स्वतंत्रता आन्दोलन में संकलित राष्ट्रीय योगदान में लाला लाजपत राय का सम्माननीय स्थान है। कोलकाता के विशेष अधिवेशन () के अध्यक्ष.
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