How to write a survey report with a conclusion Aaron Gifford Updated February 21, An effective survey report should be clear, concise and explained in laymen's terms. It should have plenty of qualitative and quantitative evidence without bogging down paragraphs and the flow of the report with too many numbers. The introduction should note what the survey is about, why it was conducted and how the information will be used.
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The survey obtained information from a diverse group of academic, gov- ernment, and industry researchers. The survey data provide evidence about how the respondents perceive the sources of risk related to dual use research, the actions that some scientists are taking to reduce the risk of misuse of science, and the prospects for acceptance of various policy proposals aimed at reducing the risks of misuse of legitimate life science research.
While useful, the results of the survey must be viewed with caution because of the low response rate and possible response bias. Scientists who may be involved in biodefense or select agent research, for example, may be more aware of the dual use dilemma and thus more likely to have responded to the survey.
In addition, a few of the questions could have been interpreted in multiple ways. Despite the limitations, which are discussed in detail in Chapter 2, the committee believes that the data obtained in this study offer valuable insights and new information.
Overall, the survey findings suggest that there is considerable support for models of oversight that rely on the responsible conduct of research and self-governance by the scientific community. The rest of the chapter provides a summary of the survey findings.
Following a brief summary of the perceptions of risks of the scientists who responded to the survey, three key areas of current and potential activities and policies are highlighted: On average, the respondents believed that there is a 51 percent chance that there will be an act of bioterrorism somewhere in the world in the next 5 years and a 35 percent chance that there will be an act of bioterrorism in the United States in the next 5 years.
Three-quarters of the respondents believe that a preference for other means of attack is the primary reason why there have been only a few acts of bioterrorism to date; overwhelmingly, 87 percent of respondents said that they believe that terrorists are not deterred by the threat of being caught and punished.
Fewer scientists considered a lack of knowledge 46 percent or access to equipment 51 percent or agents 36 percent to be significant barriers. With regard to the chance that the knowledge, tools, or techniques from dual use research will facilitate bioterrorism, the respondents per- ceive a 28 percent chance, on average, of such a bioterror attack within the next 5 years.
Half of the respondents thought that if someone wanted to create a harmful biological agent, the Internet would be the most likely place to provide sufficient information for life scientists with college- level training.
Fifteen percent of the respondents individuals out of 1, indicated that they are so concerned about dual use research that they have taken actions, even in the absence of guidelines or mandatory regulations from the U.
Some respondents reported that they had broken collaborations, not conducted some research projects, or not commu- nicated research results. The results indicate that more scientists have modified their research activities than some members of the committee expected on the basis of previous reports of manuscripts that have been modified or not published because of dual use concerns.
A Survey of Attitudes and Actions on Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: A Collaborative Effort of the National Research Council and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: / Essay Conclusion Examples A lot of students wonder how to end an essay in an impressive manner, especially if their experience writing for the academy is not vast. On the bright side, you can always find a whole variety of essay conclusion examples online. Oftentimes, the conclusion is mistaken as the summary of the survey report. Although it contains the vital points of the survey, the conclusion must be a synthesis of the survey results, the interpretation of such, and the proposal of a course of action or solution to the issues that emerged from the survey.
Interestingly, many of the actions that the respondents reported tak- ing to mitigate concerns occurred before the publication stage; much of the behavior change occurred during the research design, collaboration, and early communication stages.
Of particular interest and concern to the committee, a few respondents commented on their concerns about for- eigners as potential security risks, which may be reflected in the reported avoidance of some collaborations. The survey results suggest that: Many of the respondents indicated that they believe that personal responsibility, including measures such as codes of conduct, could foster a positive culture within the scientific com- munity to evaluate the potential consequences of their research for public safety and national security.
In addition to the low level of support for greater federal oversight 26 percentthe individual com- ments indicated a belief that increased government oversight of dual use research would be counterproductive by inhibiting the research needed to combat emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism as well as being potentially harmful to the scientific enterprise more generally.
However, many respondents 66 percent did not know whether the societies to which they belonged already had codes that address dual use issues, and some of the societies most frequently cited do not in fact have a code.Write a conclusion paragraph. This is where you can tell what was learned from the survey.
Also, indicate if the overall goals and objectives were met and if there will be follow-up surveys in the future. The survey process does not end at formulating a conclusion based on the results of the study.
The final step in utilizing the survey method is the presentation of survey findings. In presenting survey results, you must be able to deliver the findings to the audience as accurate and stimulating as possible.
Presenting survey results – Report writing Introduction Report writing is one of the most important components in the survey research cycle. Survey findings need to be presented in a way that is readable and technically acceptable. Good writing is essential to ensure the importance and usefulness of the findings are not lost.
Limitations impacting upon the report’s ability to conclude or provide an answer to the original research problem. (The inclusion of limitations in the conclusion will depend on the report’s terms of reference).
Survey reports also need a conclusion to outline the findings of the research and to summarize the importance of the findings. The conclusion must also state whether or .
Drawing conclusions from the survey results is one of the last steps in conducting a survey. Most researchers find writing the conclusion as hard as creating the introduction to the survey because these two segments act as the frame of the study.