Yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes jaundice Dark-colored urine Fluid buildup in your abdomen ascites Swelling in your legs Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech hepatic encephalopathy Spider-like blood vessels on your skin spider angiomas Every chronic hepatitis C infection starts with an acute phase.
Both contain inactive killed hepatitis A virus. For adults, two doses of the vaccine are recommended. After two doses of the hepatitis A vaccine, immunity against hepatitis A infection is believed to last for many years. Individuals at increased risk for acquiring hepatitis A and individuals with chronic liver disease for example, cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis C should be vaccinated.
Although individuals with chronic liver disease are not at increased risk for acquiring hepatitis A, they can develop serious sometimes fatal liver failure if they become infected with hepatitis A and, thus, they should be vaccinated.
Individuals at increased risk of acquiring hepatitis A are: Travelers to countries where hepatitis A is common Men who have sex with men Illegal drug users either injection or non-injection drug use Researchers working with hepatitis A or with primates that are susceptible to infection with hepatitis A Patients with clotting factor disorders who are receiving clotting factor concentrates that can transmit hepatitis A Some local health authorities or private companies may require hepatitis A vaccination for food handlers.
Because protective antibodies take weeks to develop, travelers to countries where infection with hepatitis A Hepatitis causes and effects common should be vaccinated at least 4 weeks before departure.
The Centers for Disease Control CDC recommends that immunoglobulin be given in addition to vaccination if departure is prior to 4 weeks. Immunoglobulin provides quicker protection than the vaccines, but the protection is short-lived. Vaccines that are currently available in the U.
These recombinant hepatitis B vaccines, hepatitis B vaccine Energix-B and Recombivax-HB are constructed to contain only that part of the surface antigen that is very potent in stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies. The vaccine contains no viral component other than the surface antigen, and therefore, cannot cause HBV infections.
Hepatitis B vaccines should be given in three doses with the second dose 1 to 2 months after the first dose, and the third dose 4 to 6 months after the first dose.
For the best results, the vaccinations should be given in the deltoid shoulder muscles and not in the buttocks. Five percent of vaccinated individuals will fail to develop the necessary antibodies for immunity after the three doses.
Patients with weakened immunity such as HIV infectionolder patients, and patients undergoing kidney hemodialysis are more likely to fail to respond to the vaccines. Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for: All infants Adolescents under 18 years of age who did not receive hepatitis B vaccine as infants People occupationally exposed to blood or body fluids Residents and staff of institutions for the developmentally disabled Patients receiving kidney hemodialysis People who with hemophilia and other patients receiving clotting factor concentrates Household contacts and sexual partners of patients infected with hepatitis B chronically Travelers who will spend more than 6 months in regions with high rates of hepatitis B infection Injection drug users and their sexual partners Men who have sex with men, men or women with multiple sex partners, or recent infection with a sexually transmitted infection Inmates of long-term correctional facilities All pregnant women should have a blood test for the antibody to hepatitis B virus surface antigen.
Women who test positive for hepatitis B virus positive hepatitis B surface antigen risk transmitting the virus to their infants during labor, and, therefore, infants born to mothers with hepatitis B infection should receive HBIG in addition to hepatitis B vaccine at birth.
The reason for giving both immunoglobulin and vaccine is that even though hepatitis B vaccine can offer long lasting, active immunity, immunity takes weeks or months to develop. Until active immunity develops, the short-lived, passive antibodies from the HBIG protect the infant.
Unvaccinated individuals exposed to materials infected with hepatitis B such as healthcare workers stuck by a contaminated needle will need HBIG in addition to hepatitis B vaccine for the same reason as infants born to mothers with hepatitis B infection. Hepatitis C and D There is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C.
Development of such a vaccine is difficult due to the six different forms genotypes of hepatitis C. No vaccine for hepatitis D is available. What is the prognosis of viral hepatitis?
The prognosis of viral hepatitis for most patients is good; however, this prognosis varies somewhat depending on the infecting virus. For example, those patients who develop chronic hepatitis have a worse prognosis because of the potential to develop cirrhosis, liver failure, liver cancer hepatocellular carcinomaand occasionally death.
Symptoms of viral hepatitis such as fatiguepoor appetite, nausea, and jaundice usually subside in several weeks to months, without any specific treatment. Complete recovery from viral hepatitis means that: Unfortunately, not all patients with viral hepatitis recover completely.
Chronic HCV infections are the leading cause for liver transplants. Because the liver works to detoxify substances, this task is compromised during acute and chronic viral hepatitis infections.
Consequently, avoiding items that may stress the compromised livers function for example, alcohol, smokingtaking drugs that require liver processing should be strongly considered by the patient to improve their prognosis.Hepatitis B is an infection of your liver.
It can cause scarring of the organ, liver failure, and cancer. It can be fatal if it isn’t treated. It’s spread when people come in contact with the. Fatty liver disease means you have extra fat in your liver. Heavy drinking puts you at greater risk for it, but you can get fatty liver disease, even if you don’t drink a .
Autoimmune hepatitis is liver inflammation that occurs when your body's immune system turns against liver cells. The exact cause of autoimmune hepatitis is unclear, but genetic and enviromental factors appear to interact over time in triggering the disease. Untreated autoimmune hepatitis can lead to.
Infectious canine hepatitis is an acute liver infection in dogs caused by canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1). CAV-1 also causes disease in wolves, coyotes, and bears, and encephalitis in foxes.
The virus is spread in the feces, urine, blood, saliva, and nasal discharge of infected dogs. It is contracted through the mouth or nose, where it . Pictures of Urso (Ursodiol), drug imprint information, side effects for the patient. Inflammation of the liver of any cause is referred to as hepatitis.
It may be caused by viruses, drugs, or alcohol, although the most common cause is viruses, viral caninariojana.com are several types of viral hepatitis, the most common of which are hepatitis A, B, and C.