Alfred Binet was convinced to conduct research into graphology from to He called it "the science of the future" despite rejection of his results by graphologists. His major contribution to the field can be found in Handschrift und Charakter. This organization and its system split the American graphology world in two.
Description[ edit ] Sauropods were herbivorous plant-eatingusually quite long-necked  quadrupeds four-leggedoften with spatulate spatula-shaped: They had tiny heads, massive bodies, and most had long tails.
Their hind legs were thick, straight, and powerful, ending in club-like feet with five toes, though only the inner three or in some cases four bore claws.
Their forelimbs were rather more slender and ended in pillar-like hands built for supporting weight; only the thumb bore a claw. Many illustrations of sauropods in the flesh miss these facts, inaccurately depicting sauropods with hooves capping the claw-less digits of the feet, or multiple claws or hooves on the hands.
The proximal caudal vertebrae are extremely diagnostic for sauropods. Their only real competitors in terms of size are the rorqualssuch as the blue whale.
But, unlike whales, sauropods were primarily terrestrial animals. Their body structure did not vary as much as other dinosaurs, perhaps due to size constraints, but they displayed ample variety.
Some, like the diplodocidspossessed tremendously long tails, which they may have been able to crack like a whip as a signal or to deter or injure predators,  or to make sonic booms.
However, a research published in speculated that the size estimates of A. By comparison, the giraffethe tallest of all living land animals, is only 4. There was poor and now missing evidence that so-called Bruhathkayosaurusmight have weighed over metric tons but this has been questioned.
Unlike other sauropods, whose necks could grow to up to four times the length of their backs, the neck of Brachytrachelopan was shorter than its backbone. On or shortly before 29 March a sauropod footprint about 5.
Limbs and feet[ edit ] As massive quadrupedssauropods developed specialized graviportal weight-bearing limbs. The hind feet were broad, and retained three claws in most species.
The front feet of sauropods were very dissimilar from those of modern large quadrupeds, such as elephants. Rather than splaying out to the sides to create a wide foot as in elephants, the manus bones of sauropods were arranged in fully vertical columns, with extremely reduced finger bones though it is not clear if the most primitive sauropods, such as Vulcanodon and Barapasaurushad such forefeet.
The arrangement of the forefoot bone metacarpal columns in eusauropods was semi-circular, so sauropod forefoot prints are horseshoe-shaped. Unlike elephants, print evidence shows that sauropods lacked any fleshy padding to back the front feet, making them concave.
Almost all sauropods had such a claw, though what purpose it served is unknown. The claw was largest as well as tall and laterally flattened in diplodocids, and very small in brachiosaurids, some of which seem to have lost the claw entirely based on trackway evidence.
Titanosaurs were most unusual among sauropods, as in addition to the external claw, they completely lost the digits of the front foot. Advanced titanosaurs had no digits or digit bones, and walked only on horseshoe-shaped "stumps" made up of the columnar metacarpal bones.
Bonnan suggested that this odd scaling pattern most vertebrates show significant shape changes in long bones associated with increasing weight support might be related to a stilt-walker principle suggested by amateur scientist Jim Schmidt in which the long legs of adult sauropods allowed them to easily cover great distances without changing their overall mechanics.
Air sacs[ edit ] Along with other saurischian dinosaurs such as birds and other theropodssauropods had a system of air sacs, evidenced by indentations and hollow cavities in most of their vertebrae that had been invaded by them.
Pneumatic, hollow bones are a characteristic feature of all sauropods. There were genera with small clubs on their tails, like Shunosaurusand several titanosaurssuch as Saltasaurus and Ampelosaurushad small bony osteoderms covering portions of their bodies.
The study suggested that Nigersaurus, for example, replaced each tooth every 14 days, Camarasaurus replaced each tooth every 62 days, and Diplodocus replaced each tooth once every 35 days.
Camarasaurus's teeth took longer to grow than those for Diplodocus because they were larger. Diplodocus ate plants low to the ground and Camarasaurus browsed leaves from top and middle branches. According to the scientists, the specializing of their diets helped the different herbivorous dinosaurs to coexist.
By reducing their heads to simple harvesting tools that got the plants into the body, the sauropods needed less power to lift their heads, and thus were able to develop necks with less dense muscle and connective tissue.
This drastically reduced the overall mass of the neck, enabling further elongation. Sauropods also had a great number of adaptations in their skeletal structure.
Some sauropods had as many as 19 cervical vertebrae, whereas almost all mammals are limited to only seven.
Additionally, each vertebra was extremely long and had a number of empty spaces in them which would have been filled only with air.
An air-sac system connected to the spaces not only lightened the long necks, but effectively increased the airflow through the trachea, helping the creatures to breathe in enough air.
Considering that the metabolism would have been doing an immense amount of work, it would certainly have generated a large amount of heat as well, and elimination of this excess heat would have been essential for survival.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Mar 19, · Two Methods: Quick and Fun Analysis Forensic Document Analysis Community Q&A A person's handwriting is as unique as their personality, which makes it tempting to connect the two.
Graphology is a fun exercise, especially if you're testing someone you know, but it has very limited accuracy%(59). Variations and sub-classes.
Statistical hypothesis testing is a key technique of both frequentist inference and Bayesian inference, although the two types of inference have notable caninariojana.comtical hypothesis tests define a procedure that controls (fixes) the probability of incorrectly deciding that a default position (null hypothesis) is incorrect.
For a list of free machine learning books available for download, go here. For a list of (mostly) free machine learning courses available online, go here. For a list of blogs on data science and machine learning, go here. For a list of free-to-attend meetups and local events, go here.
Feb 21, · Handwriting analysis is a facinating field not always accepted by the public. Some feel it is like palmistry or some kind of voodoo but it is an art and a science. An art because how accurate it is depends upon the graphologist and how well versed they are. Manuscript and mixed upper and lower case printing Manuscript style.
The way you dot your "i's" and cross your "t's" could reveal more than 5, different personality traits. Learn what a writing analysis reveals about you.