Overview of Research on the Globalization of the Consumer Society Constance Classen and David Howes Department of Anthropology and Sociology, Concordia University The subject of global marketing presents a prism for the researcher, glittering with a multitude of facets having to do with the production, marketing and consumption of goods and images across cultures. Each section of this essay examines the phenomenon of global marketing from a different perspective: Underlying the discussion is a concern with the social and moral ramifications of the spread of consumer culture.
One thing that soon becomes clear to any one interested in anarchism is that there is not one single form of anarchism. Rather, there are different schools of anarchist thought, different types of anarchism which have many disagreements with each other on numerous issues.
This means that anarchists, while all sharing a few key ideas, can be grouped into broad categories, depending on the economic arrangements that they consider to be most suitable to human freedom.
However, all types of anarchists share a basic approach. To quote Rudolf Rocker: Within the Socialist movement itself the Anarchists represent the viewpoint that the war against capitalism must be at the same time a war against all institutions of political power, for in history economic exploitation has always gone hand in hand with political and social oppression.
The exploitation of man by man and the domination of man over man are inseparable, and each is the condition of the other. The main differences are between "individualist" and "social" anarchists, although the economic arrangements each desire are not mutually exclusive.
Of the two, social anarchists communist-anarchists, anarcho-syndicalists and so on have always been the vast majority, with individualist anarchism being restricted mostly to the United States. In this section we indicate the differences between these main trends within the anarchist movement.
As will soon become clear, while social and individualist anarchists both oppose the state and capitalism, they disagree on the nature of a free society and how to get there.
In a nutshell, social anarchists prefer communal solutions to social problems and a communal vision of the good society i. Individualist anarchists, as their name suggests, prefer individual solutions and have a more individualistic vision of the good society.
However, we must not let these difference cloud what both schools have in common, namely a desire to maximise individual freedom and end state and capitalist domination and exploitation. In addition to this major disagreement, anarchists also disagree over such issues as syndicalism, pacifism, "lifestylism," animal rights and a whole host of other ideas, but these, while important, are only different aspects of anarchism.
Beyond a few key ideas, the anarchist movement like life itself is in a constant state of change, discussion and thought -- as would be expected in a movement that values freedom so highly.
The most obvious thing to note about the different types of anarchism is that "[n]one are named after some Great Thinker; instead, they are invariably named either after some kind of practice, or, most often, organisational principle.
Anarchists like to distinguish themselves by what they do, and how they organise themselves to go about doing it.
Far from it, as can be seen in section A. Anarchists simply recognise that to call your theory after an individual is a kind of idolatry.
Anarchists know that even the greatest thinker is only human and, consequently, can make mistakes, fail to live up to their ideals or have a partial understanding of certain issues see section H. Moreover, we see that the world changes and, obviously, what was a suitable practice or programme in, say, industrialising France of the s may have its limitations in 21st century France!
Consequently, it is to be expected that a social theory like anarchism would have numerous schools of thought and practice associated with it. Anarchism, as we noted in section A. Anarchist ideas have developed in many different social situations and, consequently, have reflected those circumstances.
Most obviously, individualist anarchism initially developed in pre-industrial America and as a result has a different perspective on many issues than social anarchism. As America changed, going from a predominantly pre-capitalist rural society to an industrialised capitalist one, American anarchism changed:The history of Christian anarchism includes the Heresy of the Free Spirit in the Middle Ages, numerous Peasant revolts and the Anabaptists in the 16th century.
The libertarian tradition within Christianity surfaced again in the 18th century in the writings of William Blake and the American Adam Ballou reached anarchist conclusions in his Practical Christian Socialism in American imperialism is a policy aimed at extending the political, economic, and cultural control of the United States government over areas beyond its boundaries.
It can be accomplished in any number of ways: by military conquest, by treaty, by subsidization, by economic penetration through private companies followed by intervention when those interests are threatened, or by regime change.
American Imperialism - Imperialism, defined by Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary, is "the policy, practice, or advocacy of extending power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisition or by gaining indirect control over the political or .
The subject of global marketing presents a prism for the researcher, glittering with a multitude of facets having to do with the production, marketing and consumption of goods and images across cultures. Cultural imperialism comprises the cultural aspects of caninariojana.comalism here refers to the creation and maintenance of unequal relationships between civilizations, favoring the more powerful caninariojana.com, cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting and imposing a culture, usually that of a politically powerful nation, over a less powerful society; in other words, the cultural.
History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. After independence in , ending a period of colonization that began in , there was little indication that the country was headed for social and political upheaval.