Following a declaration of national sovereignty on 15 October as the former Yugoslavia began to disintegrate, a referendum for independence was held on 29 February The result, in favour of independence, was rejected by the political representatives of the Bosnian Serbs who had boycotted the referendum. A fierce struggle for territorial control ensued, accompanied by the ethnic cleansing of the non-Serb population from areas under Serb control; in particular, the Bosniak population of Eastern Bosnia, near the border with Serbia. In the words of the ICTY judgement:
Asking questions for science and defining problems for engineering 2. Developing and using models 3. Planning and carrying out investigations 4. Analyzing and interpreting data 5. Using mathematics and computational thinking 6. Constructing explanations for science and designing solutions for engineering 7.
Engaging in argument from evidence 8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information Throughout the discussion, we consider practices both of science and engineering. In many cases, the practices in the two fields are similar enough that they can be discussed together.
In other cases, however, they are considered separately. Engaging in the practices of science helps students understand how scientific knowledge develops; such direct involvement gives them an appreciation of the wide range of approaches that are used to investigate, model, and explain the world.
Engaging in the practices of engineering likewise helps students understand the work of engineers, as well as the links between engineering and science. Scientific and Engineering Practices. A Framework for K Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. The National Academies Press.
Students may then recognize that science and engineering can contribute to meeting many of the major challenges that confront society today, such as generating sufficient energy, preventing and treating disease, maintaining supplies of fresh water and food, and addressing climate change.
Any education that focuses predominantly on the detailed products of scientific labor—the facts of science—without developing an understanding of how those facts were established or that ignores the many important applications of science in the world misrepresents science and marginalizes the importance of engineering.
Understanding How Scientists Work The idea of science as a set of practices has emerged from the work of historians, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists over the past 60 years. This work illuminates how science is actually done, both in the short term e.
Seeing science as a set of practices shows that theory development, reasoning, and testing are components of a larger ensemble of activities that includes networks of participants and institutions [ 1011 ], specialized ways of talking and writing [ 12 ], the development of models to represent systems or phenomena [ ], the making of predictive inferences, construction of appropriate instrumentation, and testing of hypotheses by experiment or observation [ 16 ].
Our view is that this perspective is an improvement over previous approaches in several ways. First, it minimizes the tendency to reduce scientific practice to a single set of procedures, such as identifying and controlling variables, classifying entities, and identifying sources of error.
This tendency overemphasizes experimental investigation at the expense of other practices, such as modeling, critique, and communication.
In addition, when such procedures are taught in isolation from science content, they become the aims of instruction in and of themselves rather than a means of developing a deeper understanding of the concepts and purposes of science [ 17 ].
Page 44 Share Cite Suggested Citation: In reality, practicing scientists employ a broad spectrum of methods, and although science involves many areas of uncertainty as knowledge is developed, there are now many aspects of scientific knowledge that are so well established as to be unquestioned foundations of the culture and its technologies.
It is only through engagement in the practices that students can recognize how such knowledge comes about and why some parts of scientific theory are more firmly established than others.
Third, attempts to develop the idea that science should be taught through a process of inquiry have been hampered by the lack of a commonly accepted definition of its constituent elements.
Such ambiguity results in widely divergent pedagogic objectives [ 18 ]—an outcome that is counterproductive to the goal of common standards.Obstructing a Parent’s Rightful Child Custody.
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SUMMARY OF THE STEPS OF THE ETHICAL DECISION MAKING PROCESS 1.
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